External Research

In addition to the Indian Armed Violence Assessment's series of publications reflecting original research, this page also offers links to relevant external publications on armed violence and related issues dealing with India or relevant to the issues facing the country

The articles listed here are published externally, and do not necessarily reflect the views of IAVA or findings of IAVA research.


Framing the tribal: ethnic violence in Northeast India. By Åshild Kolåsa, July 2015. In Northeast India, routine framing of armed violence as ‘ethnic’ is linked closely to the construction of armed violence as ‘ethnic clashes’. During the last decade, media and authorities have reported so consistently on ‘ethnic clashes’ in hill areas that the term is now taken for granted. However, ‘ethnic clashes’ are not produced by physical acts of violence alone. They are as much a product of actors who hold stakes in representing the ‘outbreak’ of violence as conflict’ between tribal communities.

Bandit Queen: Cinematic representation of social banditry in India. By Shanthie Mariet D'Souzaa and Bibhu Prasad Routraya, July 2015. Cinematic representation of social banditry failed to emerge from the romanticised depiction of insurgency and terrorism which Bollywood is known for. Bandit Queen, the biopic of Phoolan Devi, stands apart. Using rape as its central theme, it acknowledges the reality of social banditry in a country where governance remains an absent for a majority of its people.

Ethnic Subnationalist Insurgencies in South Asia Identities, Interests and Challenges to State Authority. By Jugdep S. Chima. Routledge, 2015. This book uses cross-cultural analysis across Eurasia and Afro-Asia to trace the roots of contemporary border disputes and insurgencies in South Asia. It discusses the way frontiers of British India, and consequently the modern states of India and Pakistan, were drafted through negotiations backed up by organized violence, showing how this concept found its fruition in present-day counter-insurgency measures.

Field Assessment on the Humanitarian Crisis in Assam (post-23/24 December 2014 mass killings) Phase 1 and Phase 2. By Samrat Sinha, January 2015. Internal displacement and humanitarian crisis in Assam after targeted violence like the massacre of 82 civilians on 23-24 December 2014 poses challenges for action by governmental and non-governmental organizations. With more than 290,000 internally displaced persons in 139 relief camps it is the biggest forced displacement in the region after the 2012 Bodo-Muslim violence. Further complicating the response is ongoing counterinsurgency by security forces.

Rice or riots: On food production and conflict severity across India. By Gerdis Wischnatha and Halvard Buhauga,  November 2014. Using India as a test case, we investigate how year-on-year fluctuations in food production affect the severity of ongoing armed conflicts. The statistical analysis shows that harvest loss is robustly associated with increased levels of political violence.

"Mapping Murder: Homicide Patterns and Trends in India, An analysis from 2000-2010", by Sonal Marwah, Journal of South Asian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014).

Understanding India’s Maoists, by P.V. Ramana, Pentagon Press, 2014.

Gun Violence, Disability and Recovery: India, by Sonal Marwah, Samrat Sinha and Nobhojit Roy, February 2014.  Survivors of conflict violence in India get mixed treatment from medical personnel, often reluctant to work in affected areas. Government programmes are restricted. Civil society is more inclusive, but lacks funds. Survivors are treated differently depending on the state and conflict. Disability support is plagued by bureaucratic difficulty and corruption. Victim rights are in their infancy, with criminal justice focused on the accused more than the victim. The chapter features the story of a gun violence survivor who overcame stigma and hardship to lead disability activism.

Militant Groups in South Asia, by Surinder K. Sharma and Anshuman Behera, IDSA, 2014

Growing Up Unwanted: Girls’ Experiences of Gender Discrimination and Violence in Tamil Nadu, India, by Sharanda Srinivasan, 2014.

This article examines shifts in gender and generational dynamics of gender-based violence through girls’ experiences of unwantedness as they progress through the life course, and how they negotiate the contexts and structures that (re)produce daughter aversion. Although statistical data can provide a good impression of the extent of gender discrimination, the article focuses on girls’ lived experiences in contexts where they are aware of and deal with unwantedness.

The Arms Trade Treaty: A public health imperative. Journal of Public Health Policy 35, February 2014. The UN adopted the historic ATT after public health institutions and NGOs made adoption an imperative. The ATT reduces human suffering by prohibiting arms sales for genocide, attacks against civilians or war crimes. The health community has much to contribute to ATT ratification and implementation.

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in South Asia: Through a Peacebuilding Lens, Moeed Yusuf, ed., Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace, 2014.

Desi-katta (country-made firearm) and wound ballistics. Thejaswi H.T., Adarsh Kumar, Jegadheeshwararaj. Journal of the Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine. Vol. 35, No. 2 (April-June 2013)

A Comparison of Victim-Reported and Police-Recorded Crime in India, by Kislaya Prasad.   Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLVILL, No. 33 (2013).

Explaining victimization during and Indian witch hunt. Soma Chaudhuri  in K. Jalshankar and Natti Ronel, eds., Global Criminology, CRC Press, 2013. 17. There were roughly 25,000 witch killings in India 1987 to 2003. Many more women are tortured, maimed and traumatized. This chapter explains one such incident.

Urban-Rural Incidence of Rape in India: Myths and Social Science Evidence, by Krishnaswamy, Sudhir, Shishir Bail and Rohan Kothari, 2013.

India in Community Policing in Indigenous Communities. Mahesh K. Nalla and Graeme R. Newman, eds., CRC Press, 2013. Community policing in India does not resemble that in Western countries. It often is more a grassroots organization. But when police adapt a social work approach, community support flows naturally.

Human InSecurity: Fear, Deprivation and Abuse in India, by Ram Mashru, Amazon, December 2013.

India's Internal Security: Realities and Future Pathways, by Namrata Goswami, IDSA, 2013.  

Taming the Rebels - India’s Negotiations with the ULFA. South Asia conflict monitor, Volume 1, Number 3, August 2013.  

Left-Wing Extremism: Rethinking India’s COIN Strategy, by Bibhu Prasad Routray and Shanthie Mariet D’Souza, Small Wars Journal, July 2013.

An Uncertain Glory: India and its Contradictions, Jean Dreze, Amartya Sen. The Guardian, 16 July 2013

Resurgence of the Rabid Red - Maoist Menace in India. South Asia conflict Monitor, Volume 1, Number 1, June 2013.  

Israeli Arms Transfers to India: Ad Hoc Cooperation or Strategic Partnership?. Richard Bitzinger, Rajaratnam School, 2013.  

The Pink Face of Indian vigilantism. Global Journal, No. 16, 2013.

India's Security Interests and the Arms Trade Treaty. Rahul Prakash, Observer Research Foundation, February 2013.

More than Maoism: Politics, Policies and Insurgencies in South Asia. Robin Jeffrey and Ronojoy Sen and Pratima Singh, Manohar Publishers, 2012

Human Security Report 2012. Human Security Report Project, 2012.
From the summary: This report reviews data on sexual violence in wartime. It finds that the mainstream narrative exaggerates the prevalence of combatant-perpetrated sexual violence, while ignoring more pervasive domestic sexual violence in wartime.

Suicide mortality in India: a national survey, Vikram Patel, et al., The Lancet, 23 June 2012.
Abstract: Surveyed deaths corresponded to about 187,000 suicide deaths in India in 2010. Suicide death rates in India are among the highest in the world. A large proportion occur between the ages of 15 and 29 years. Public health interventions such as restrictions on access to pesticides might prevent many suicide deaths in India.

The other Burma? Conflict, counter-insurgency and human rights in Northeast India, Ben Hayes, Transnational Institute, March 2012

Rebels from the mud houses: Dalits and the making of the Maoist Revolution in Bihar, George J. Kunnath. Social Science Press, 2012. 
From the review: Dalits participate in the Maoist movement as party cadres, guerrilla fighters, suppliers of food and shelter, and members of revolutionary organizations. This book investigates why thousands of Dalits took up arms for the Maoist movement. It explores Dalit movement from quiescence to armed resistance.

Global Community Policing: Problems and Challenges, Arvind Verma, Dilip K. Das, and Manoj Abraham. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2012.
Abstract: Proceedings of the 2010 International Police Executive Symposium in Kerala, India, this book presents new insights into community policing and a critical appraisal across the globe. 

Neo-Naxal Challenge: Issues and Options, Giridhari Nayek. Pentagon Security International, 2012.
From the summary: In this in-depth study discuses the history, philosophy of Naxalism, its strategy and tactics. Counter measures examined include kinetic operations, non-kinetic developmental operations and provides suggestions to improve the system.

Researching the Urban Dilemma, Robert Muggah. IDRC, May 2012.
From the preface: Today’s cities are centres of multi-layered violence. Criminal and organized violence, social violence, including violence within the household, is a significant problem, particularly for vulnerable youth and women. This initiative aims at generating evidence on connections between urban violence, inequalities and poverty and identifying the most effective strategies for addressing them.

Arrest, Detention, and Criminal Justice System: A Study in the Context of the Constitution of India,  Bellary Devi, Oxford University Press, February 2012.
From the summary: The book studies issues pertaining to arrest and detention in light of the Indian Constitution. The arrest and detention provisions in the Indian legal remain much the same as in the imperial British era. This volume analyses constitutional provisions, statutory law, pertinent judgments, case law, reports of various committees and recommendations of experts.

Pogrom in Gujarat: Hindu Nationalism and Anti-Muslim Violence in India, Parvis Ghassem-Fachandi. Princeton University Press, 2012.
From the publisher: Ghassem-Fachandi looks at how media helped to fuel the Gujarat pogrom in 2002. He shows how the vegetarian sensibilities of Hindus and the language of sacrifice were manipulated to provoke disgust against Muslims and mobilize aspiring middle classes in the name of Hindu nationalism. The result is an original interpretation of how Hindu proponents of ahimsa became complicit in the violence they claimed to renounce.

Windows into a Revolution: Ethnographies of Maoism in India and Nepal, Alpa Shah and Judith Pettigrew eds., Social Science Press, New Delhi, 2012.
From the jacket: Maoists thrive where the State never stepped in. For those not wretchedly oppressed, a distant and uncaring State leaves you alone to make what you can of circumstances. The book goes beyond the caught-between-two-enemies narrative, with a glimpse into those who joined the Maoists. A disturbing constant is treatment of the ‘people' as subjects by the security forces and the Maoists.

The tipping point of urban conflict: the case of Patna, India, University of Manchester, March 2012. Although Patna is perceived to have undergone a reduction in violent crime, this study shows that crime has not declined but been confined to the city’s slums. Also see Policy Brief: a case study of Patna (March 2012) and Issue 13: Violence, crime and poverty in Bihar, India (April 2012).

Understanding Gender Equality in India - 2012, UN Women and National Commission for Women
From the report:  An assessment of gender gap in various aspects of development provides a better understanding of the present situation and in developing the future course of action that needs to be followed. It is with this perspective that the research publication... highlights the crucial statistical indicators of socio-economic relevance which shed light on gender inequality and gender discrimination in India

We, Widows of the Gun, Cordaid: The Hague, 2011
From the jacket: Five young widows from Manipur... gun widows. Four are widows of men extrajudicially executed bon suspicion of terrorist involvement - without charge, evidence, or due process. Their fates are by no means unusual. Many women in Manipur can tell similar stories.

Maoists and Other Armed Conflicts, Anuradha M. Chenoy and Kamal Mitra Chenoy, Penguin, 2011. From the authors:  ...insurgencies rise because of a complex interplay of identity concerns, injustices, denial of rights, economic and social inequalities and the breakdown of symbolic orders... The use of force and draconian  laws create a state of exception that militarizes and fuels grievances. Cease fire agreements and peace talks are insufficient unless followed by state policies of human development and human security, good governance and justice.

Policing Delhi Urbanization, Crime and Law Enforcement, O.P Mishra, Oxford University Press, 2011. From the review: Policing in Delhi is more complex than any city in India. The author, a serving police officer in Delhi, provides a detailed report on the nature of policing the capital in the background of its history and problems. The multidimensional challenges faced by the Delhi Police includes law and order problems, organized crime, terrorism and security for VIPs. 

Non-State Armed Groups in South Asia, IDSA, 2011. From the preface: This book is a comprehensive survey of non-state armed groups in South Asia. It brings together contributions by scholars in India and their deep understanding of the groups and the socio-economic and political environs in which they sustain themselves.

Armed Conflicts in South Asia 2011 - The Promise and Threat of Transformation, IPCS, 2011. From the website: This volume examines the major trends in conflicts in south Asian. This edition includes essays on conflict transformation, early warnings, conflict situations in South Asia, Sri Lanka, Nepal, J&K and the Northeast.

Policing in the 21st Century— Myth, Realities and Challenges, K.V. Thomas, New Delhi: Kaveri Books, 2011. From the jacket: In the 21st century, policing is up against a formidable challenge in the form of a bewildering range of crimes in cyber space, thanks to the phenomenal advances in Information Technology. Thomas' book should serve as a useful tool in police training and as a trigger for a wider debate on improving the quality of policing in the country.

North-East India: People displaced by ethnic violence ‘forgotten’, Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre and Norwegian Refugee Council, Nov. 2011.
From the report: ‘…over 800,000 people were forced to flee their homes in episodes of inter-ethnic violence in western Assam, along the border between Assam and Meghalaya, and in Tripura. According to conservative estimates, more than 76,000 of them are still living in displacement…’

Global Study on Homicide 2011, UN Office on Drugs and Crime, Oct. 2011.
From the report: This major review of homicide in 207 countries shows that  Men make up the vast majority of victims and perpetrators of homicide, and usually are killed in the street. Women usually are murdered by male partners and are more likely to be murdered in the home.

Are the Indian police a law unto themselves? K.S. Subramanian. New Delhi: Social Watch India, July 2011.
From the preface: "The challenge facing political decent societies everywhere is one of maintaining internal security and external threats with maximal respect for human rights obligations under customary and treaty-based international human rights law. India is not unique in confronting this challenge; yet it remains singular in its tardy recognition of human rights responsibilities..."

Conflict Resolution: Learning Lessons from Dialogue Processes in India, Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, June 2011.
From the report: "There are many lessons to be learned from reviewing and analysing India's rich experience of engaging in dialogue with conflict parties. These lessons are equally relevant to other conflicts in other parts of the world and to future eforts to resolve conflicts in India."

Communal Crimes and National Integration: A Socio-Legal Study, Praveen Kumar, Readworthy Publications, 2011. From the summary: Since Independence, communal crimes have taken place with alarming regularity, threatening life and livelihood. This book presents a critical study of socio-legal aspects of communal crimes in India and their impact on national integration.

"Revolutionary conflict in federations: the Indian case”, Jason Miklian, Conflict, Security & Development, February 2011, pp. 25-53.

World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development. Washington DC: World Bank, January 2011. 

Women Rights in Conflict Zones: A Focus on IndiaHuman Rights Law Network, September 2010. 

Political Violence in South and Southeast Asia: Critical Perspectives. Tokyo: United Nations University, 2010.

Community Warriors: State, Peasants by Caste Armies in Bihar, by Ashwani Kumar. London: Anthem, 2009.

"Managing Intractable Conflict: Indian Strategies”, Åshild Kolås and Jason Miklian, Journal of Conflict Management and Development, 2009, pp. 1–20.

Conflict Mapping And Peace Processes in North East India, edited by Lazar Jeyaseela, North Eastern Social Research Centre, 2008.

Kashmir: Violence and Health. Médecins Sans Frontières. Nov, 2006.

International Disability Rights Monitor 2005 - Regional Report of Asia. International Disability Network, July 2005, Chicago.

Children Affected by Armed Conflict in South Asia: A review of trends and issues identified through secondary research. UNICEF Regional Office South Asia and Refugees Studies Centre. February 2002.

Women, Peace and Security. Emphasis on the impact of armed conflict on women and girls. United Nations, 2002.